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Breed Information

                                 The Pomeranian :  Breed Information

Pomeranian breed info From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Pomeranian is a breed of dog in the Spitz family and classed as a toy dog breed because of its small size.

Size
At an average of 4 to 10 lb (1.4 to 3.2 kg) according to AKC  & KC standards, the Pomeranian (Pom) is the most diminutive of the northern breeds. However, there are some that may weigh up to 15 pounds, as the teacup or toy size is not guaranteed.
The head of the Pomeranian is wedge-shaped, making it somewhat foxy in appearance. The ears are small and set high. Its tail is characteristic of the breed and should be turned over the back and carried flat, set high. When born, the tail is not spread out; it may take months for it to grow over the Pomeranian’s back, and flatten. Beneath the Pomeranian’s fur is a small but muscular dog, similar in appearance to a Chihuahua (dog). If you were to ever bathe a Pomeranian or see one wet, you may easily mistake it for a Chihuahua.

 

Coat and color

The Pom’s coat possesses two coats, an undercoat and a top coat; the first is soft, thick, and fluffy; the latter is long, straight and coarse. The undercoat is shed once a year by males, by intact females when they are in season, after delivering a litter, and during times of stress.
Coat colors vary across the breed. There are thirteen AKC-standard color combinations: black, black & tan, blue, blue & tan, chocolate, chocolate & tan, cream, cream sable, orange, orange sable, red, red sable, and sable. The AKC also recognizes five “alternative” colors: beaver, brindle, chocolate sable, white, and wolf sable. Patches of one or more colors over a white undercoat are called “Parti-Color.”

Health

Poms often live 12–19 years. Some very healthy Poms have even been known to live past 20 years of age or more.
The most common problem in Pomeranians is luxating patella. Also Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome and hip dysplasia can occur, but are rare in this small breed. Patent ductus arteriosus (a congenital heart defect) and collapsing trachea have become serious problems in Poms.
Dry eye, tear duct disorders and cataracts that can appear in young adulthood and often lead to blindness are also common. Skin diseases are quite common, especially allergies (that often leads to acute moist dermatitis or “hot spots”) and follicular dysplasia (also known as alopecia X). Other problems that occur regularly include hypothyroidism, epilepsy, and hypoglycemia. Occasionally, hydrocephalus can occur in Pom puppies. Poms, like many toy breeds, are prone to bad teeth and harmless episodes of reverse sneezing. Also, it is important that Poms are trained not to mingle around peoples feet. Because of their loyal tendencies, they will follow from room to room, easily getting stepped on. Their delicate bodies will injure easily this way.

Grooming

Coat care for the Pomeranian is similar to the Pekingese. A daily or twice weekly (damp) brushing against the hair weekly is essential to keep the thick, plush coat, which sheds seasonally, free of mats. Brushing also helps to prevent dry skin and dandruff. A Pomeranian’s coat needs very little trimming only every now and then. Combing is seldom necessary and sometimes totally unnecessary. Some people prefer to keep the coat short and trimmed, often referred to as a “puppy cut” (hair is cut down to one to two inches long), but most prefer to maintain the long coat with regular brushing and grooming. Regular ear and nail care is recommended, along with generally only peak-seasonal bathing. It is unadvisable to bathe Pomeranians too frequently as excessive bathing can damage their skin and coat by removing essential oils, especially if using anti-flea products. Pomeranians are also prone to teeth problems, and it is recommended that their teeth be brushed at least once a week. Ideally, their teeth should be brushed daily and the dog receive dental and vitamin treats.

History

The Pomeranian originated from the sled dogs of Greenland and Lapland, which were eventually brought into Europe in Pomerania. This region, bordered on the north by the Baltic Sea, has been under the control of Wendish Slavs, Poles, Swedes, Danes, Prussians and Germans, at various times, and most recently Poles again. This region extends from the west of the Rügen Island to the Vistula River. The name Pomorze or Pommern comes from Slavic “along the sea”. Breeders in Pomerania improved the coat and bred the dogs down for city living, but they were still 20 pounds or more when they reached England.
English breeders, through trial and error and Mendelean theories, are credited for reducing the dog’s size and developing the many colors. The Pomeranian of today is small due to selective breeding, but the breed still retains the hardy disposition and thick coat typical of dogs in cold climates.

Queen Charlotte first introduced the Pomeranian to English nobility; however, the Pom gained international popularity when her granddaughter Victoria returned from vacation in Florence, Italy with a Pomeranian named Marco.
The dogs owned by Queen Charlotte & Queen Victoria were much larger and were German Spitz and a Volpino Italiano. The same is true of any other historical Pom from before the 19th century.

The FCI classifies the German Spitz as one family consisting of the Dwarf (Pomeranian), Small and Standard (American Eskimo Dog), and Wolfsspitz (Keeshond). Additional close relatives of the Pomeranian are the Norwegian Elkhound, the Schipperke, and possibly the Samoyed.

                  

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